The African Cohort Study (AFRICOS) is a long term prospective observational HIV focused cohort enrolling 3,000 HIV infected and 600 HIV uninfected volunteers in MHRP PEPFAR-supported HIV care and treatment facilities in Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Enrolling sites in Nigeria include Defence Headquarters Medical Center, Abuja, and the 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Yaba, Lagos.

The study serves as an evaluation tool for the MHRP PEPFAR program and also facilitates investigation into HIV comorbidities and pathogenesis in an African context.Study participants are drawn from health facility clinic patient populations, allowing MHRP to monitor the impact of HIV-directed health and preventive services that fall under national guidelines. Volunteers complete six monthly visits during which they undergo a history and physical exam, are administered a questionnaire and brief neurocognitive battery as well as blood and sputum collection for ascertainment of HIV outcomes and comorbidities, both infectious and noninfectious.

Results of the study have been presented at major international conferences such as the International AIDS Conference (IAC) and Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI).  Study results have also been applied to an HIV continuum grading dashboard tool across sites evaluating antiretroviral coverage and its efficacy in terms of virologic suppression.